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A Corda vault is a database containing all data from the ledger relevant to a node. The database tracks spent and unspent (consumed and unconsumed) states. From a business perspective, this means a record of all the transaction states that you can spend as the node owner, and a record of all spent states from transactions relevant to you. You can compare it to a cryptocurrency wallet—a record of what you have spent and how much you have available to spend. You can attach descriptive textual notes to any transaction stored in the vault.

Spent and unspent states

Unspent or unconsumed states represent:
* Fungible states available for spending. * States available to transfer to another party. * Linear states available for evolution. For example, in response to a lifecycle event on a deal.

Spent or consumed states represent a ledger immutable state. These are kept for the purpose of: * Transaction reporting. * Audit and archives, including the ability to perform joins with app-private data, like customer notes.

You can use data in your vault to create transactions that send value to another party by combining fungible states, and possibly adding a change output that makes the values balance. This process is referred to as ‘coin selection’.

Spending from the vault in this way ensures that transactions respect fungibility rules. The issuer and reference data is preserved as the assets pass between parties.

Data management on and off ledger

The vault supports the management of data in both authoritative on-ledger form and, where appropriate, shadow off-ledger form:

  • On-ledger data refers to distributed ledger state (cash, deals, trades) to which a party is participant.
  • Off-ledger data refers to a party’s internal reference, static, and systems data.

This diagram illustrates the breakdown of the vault into sub-system components:


You can see:

  • The vault’s on-ledger store tracks unconsumed states. The node updates it internally when all participants verify and sign a smart contract and commit a transaction to the ledger.
  • The vault “Off Ledger” store refers to additional data added by the node owner subsequent to transaction recording.
  • The vault performs fungible state spending (and in future, fungible state optimisation management including merging, splitting and re-issuance).
  • Vault extensions represent additional custom plugin code a developer may write to query specific custom contract state attributes.
  • Customer “Off Ledger” (private store) represents internal organisational data that may be joined with the vault data to perform additional reporting or processing.
  • A Vault Query API is exposed to developers using standard Corda RPC and CorDapp plugin mechanisms.
  • Transaction recording flows use a vault update API internally.
  • The vault database schemas are directly accessible via JDBC for customer joins and queries.

The Archive

To prevent a node database from becoming too large, you can use the Archive service to remove all but the minimum required data relating to consumed transactions. If you plan your CorDapp design accordingly, you can ensure that your spent states are moved to the archive regularly. By using the archive, your vault does not get weighed down by the full backchain data, but retains the essential information to maintain ledger integrity.

Find out more about the Archive Service.

Soft locking to prevent double spend attempts

Soft locking automatically or explicitly reserves states to prevent multiple transactions within the same node from trying to use the same output simultaneously. Whilst any double spend attempts would ultimately be detected by a notary, soft locking provides a mechanism of early detection for such unwarranted and invalid scenarios.

Soft locks are automatically applied to coin selection, like cash spending, to ensure that no two transactions attempt to spend the same fungible states. If there aren’t enough fungible states to satisfy both requests, one of the requesters receives an InsufficientBalanceException.

Flows that issue or receive new states have soft locks applied automatically. These states are effectively soft locked until flow termination (exit or error) or by explicit release.

In addition, the VaultService exposes a number of functions a developer may use to explicitly reserve, release and query soft locks associated with states as required by their CorDapp application logic:

     * Reserve a set of [StateRef] for a given [UUID] unique identifier.
     * Typically, the unique identifier will refer to a [FlowLogic.runId]'s [UUID] associated with an in-flight flow.
     * In this case if the flow terminates the locks will automatically be freed, even if there is an error.
     * However, the user can specify their own [UUID] and manage this manually, possibly across the lifetime of multiple
     * flows, or from other thread contexts e.g. [CordaService] instances.
     * In the case of coin selection, soft locks are automatically taken upon gathering relevant unconsumed input refs.
     * @throws [StatesNotAvailableException] when not possible to soft-lock all of requested [StateRef].
    fun softLockReserve(lockId: UUID, stateRefs: NonEmptySet<StateRef>)

     * Release all or an explicitly specified set of [StateRef] for a given [UUID] unique identifier.
     * A [Vault] soft-lock manager is automatically notified from flows that are terminated, such that any soft locked
     * states may be released.
     * In the case of coin selection, soft-locks are automatically released once previously gathered unconsumed
     * input refs are consumed as part of cash spending.
    fun softLockRelease(lockId: UUID, stateRefs: NonEmptySet<StateRef>? = null)


Querying the vault with SoftLockingCondition

By default, vault queries always include locked states in its result sets. Custom filterable criteria can be specified using the SoftLockingCondition attribute of VaultQueryCriteria:

    data class SoftLockingCondition(val type: SoftLockingType, val lockIds: List<UUID> = emptyList())

    enum class SoftLockingType {
        UNLOCKED_ONLY,  // only unlocked states
        LOCKED_ONLY,    // only soft locked states
        SPECIFIED,      // only those soft locked states specified by lock id(s)
        UNLOCKED_AND_SPECIFIED   // all unlocked states plus those soft locked states specified by lock id(s)


Explicit Usage

Soft locks are associated with transactions, typically within the lifecycle of a flow. Every time a flow starts, a soft lock identifier is associated with that flow for its duration and released upon its natural termination or in the event of an exception. The VaultSoftLockManager is responsible within the node for automatically managing this soft lock registration and release process for flows. The TransactionBuilder class has a new lockId field for the purpose of tracking lockable states. By default, it is automatically set to a random UUID (outside of a flow) or to a flow’s unique ID (within a flow).

Upon building a new transaction to perform some action for a set of states on a contract, a developer must explicitly register any states they may wish to hold until that transaction is committed to the ledger. These states are effectively ‘soft locked’ (not usable by any other transaction) until the developer explicitly releases these or the flow terminates or errors (at which point they are automatically released).

An example of soft locking in action

A prime example where soft locking is automatically enabled is within the process of issuance and transfer of fungible state, like cash.

For example, Alice—an issuer of fungible assets—wants to transfer newly issued assets immediately to Bob, the issuance requester. This issuance and transfer operation must be atomic, such that another flow, or instance of the same flow, does not step in and unintentionally spend the states issued by Alice before they are transferred to the intended recipient. Soft locking automatically prevents the new issued states within IssuerFlow from being spendable by any other flow until such time as the IssuerFlow itself terminates.

Other use cases for soft locking may involve competing flows attempting to match trades or any other concurrent activities that may involve operating on an identical set of unconsumed states.


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