Corda 5 Developer Preview 2 is now available.

Corda Open Source 4.4 release notes

Welcome to the Corda 4.4 release notes. Please read these carefully to understand what’s new in this release and how the features can help you. Just as prior releases have brought with them commitments to wire and API stability, Corda 4.4 comes with those same guarantees. States and apps valid in Corda 3.0 are usable in Corda 4.4.

Corda Open Source 4.4 Apache Log4j update (December 16 2021)

Corda 4.4 was updated on December 16th 2021 to fix the urgent security issue - CVE-2021-44228 - caused by the Apache Log4j 2 dependency.

To build the latest version of Corda 4.4:

  1. Open a terminal window in the directory where you want to download the Corda repository.
  2. Clone the Corda repository by running this command: git clone
  3. Checkout the release branch for Corda 4.4 by running this command: git checkout origin/release/os/4.4
  4. Run the command: ./gradlew assemble
  5. Find node/capsule/build/libs/corda-4.4-SNAPSHOT.jar, this replaces your node’s current corda.jar. To replace the superseded .jar file, follow the instructions on upgrading your node to Corda 4.4.

Corda Open Source 4.4 release notes

Corda 4.4 lays the foundation of a new open core approach for the Corda codebase. This involved a refactoring of the main functional components of Corda. Please consult the CorDapp overview to get an overview of the practical impact on CorDapp development.

Furthermore, Corda 4.4 introduces improvements to the flow framework API and a new diagnostic ServiceHub call, and includes a number of security enhancements.

Changes for developers in Corda 4.4

Flows API improvements

Corda 4.4 introduces a FlowLogic.await API, allowing a CorDapp developer to suspend a flow when executing user-defined long-running operations, such as call-outs to external services. The FlowLogic.await API prevents these long-running operations from blocking the flow thread, allowing other flows to progress. Previously, these operations had to be executed synchronously, blocking the flow thread.

The CorDapp developer can decide whether to run these asynchronous flow operations in a dedicated thread pool, or to handle the threading themselves directly.

Note that as before, the flow framework suspends automatically for certain operations (for example, when waiting to receive a message from a counterparty). These suspensions do not have to be triggered explicitly.

The node operator can configure the number of threads in the threadpool to dedicate to external operations.

Corda 4.4 also introduces a new HospitalizeFlowException exception type that, when thrown, causes a flow to halt execution and send itself to the flow hospital for observation. The flow will automatically be retried on the next node start.

This exception gives user code a way to retry a flow from its last checkpoint if a known intermittent failure occurred.

New utility APIs

Corda 4.4 introduces a new call (ServiceHub.DiagnosticsService) available to CorDapp developers that allows them to access:

  • The edition of Corda being run (e.g. Open Source, Enterprise)
  • The version of Corda being run including the patch number (eg. 3.2.20190215)

Corda 4.4 also provides a callback (AppServiceHub.register) to allow Corda services to register custom actions to be performed once the node is fully started-up. This pattern prevents issues caused by the service trying to immediately access a part of the node that hadn’t yet been initialised .

Security enhancements

  • The SSH server in the Node shell has been updated to remove outdated weak ciphers and algorithms.
  • The ability to SSH into the standalone shell has been removed
  • A new read-only RPC user role template has been documented in Node shell

Changes to integration testing

The “out-of-process” nodes spawned through Driver DSL (see Integration testing) will no longer accidentally contain your CorDapps on their application classpath. The following items will be filtered out:

  • Directories (only files are allowed)
  • .jar files with Maven classifiers tests or test
  • .jar files with any CorDapp attributes in their manifests (any of those listed in Building and installing a CorDapp or Target-Platform-Version and Min-Platform-Version if both are present)
  • .jar files with the Corda-Testing attribute in their manifests. The manifest of the following artifacts has been updated to include the Corda-Testing attribute:
    • corda-node-driver
    • corda-test-utils
    • corda-test-common
    • corda-test-db
    • corda-mock
  • Any files with names beginning with corda-mock, junit, testng or mockito

Some of your existing integration tests might implicitly be relying on the presence of the above files, so please keep this in mind when upgrading your version of Corda.

Platform version change

Given the addition of new APIs, the platform version of Corda 4.4 has been bumped up from 5 to 6. This is to prevent CorDapps that use it being deployed onto nodes unable to host them. Note that the minimum platform version has not been changed - this means that older Corda nodes can still interoperate with Corda 4.4 nodes. Since the APIs added do not affect the wire protocol or have other zone-level implications, applications can take advantage of these new platform version 6 features even if the Corda 4.4 node is running on a network whose minimum platform version is 4.

For more information on platform version, please see Versioning. For more details on upgrading a CorDapp to use platform version 5, please see Upgrading CorDapps to newer Platform Versions.

Known Issues

Changes introduced in Corda 4.4 to increase ledger integrity have highlighted limitations regarding database transactions. To prevent flows from continuing to process after a database transaction has failed to commit or suffered from a pre-commit persistence exception, extra database flushes have been added. These extra flushes can cause exceptions to be thrown where they were not before (or cause different exception types to be raised compared to Corda 4.3 or previous versions). In general, CorDapp developers should not expect to be able to catch exceptions thrown during a database transaction and then continue with further DB operations as part of the same flow. A safer pattern involves allowing the flow to fail and be retried

Issues Fixed

  • A failure response from Doorman during initial registration causes a class cast exception [CORDA-2744]
  • Add an exception for Unrecoverable RPC errors [CORDA-3192]
  • Fix the misleading Flow has been waiting message [CORDA-3197]
  • Update Quasar agent so that we can exclude entire ClassLoaders from being instrumented [CORDA-3228]
  • Don’t fail on liquibase errors when using H2 [CORDA-3302]
  • Exceptions thrown in raw vault observers can cause critical issues [CORDA-3329]
  • Migration from Corda 3.x to 4.x for PostgreSQL require a manual workaround [CORDA-3348]
  • Prepare DJVM library for 1.0 release [CORDA-3377]
  • Improve node configuration override documentation [CORDA-3386]
  • Allow EvolutionSerializer to handle primitive types becoming nullable [CORDA-3390]
  • Fix caching of local AMQPSerializer [CORDA-3392]
  • Fixed NPE in BlobInspector [CORDA-3396]
  • Update DemoBench so that using the DJVM is configurable [CORDA-3406]
  • Scanning for Custom Serializers in the context of transaction verification is broken [CORDA-3464]
  • Allow EvolutionSerializer to handle boxed types becoming primitive [CORDA-3469]
  • Create interface to perform transactional operations from custom CordaServices [CORDA-3471]
  • Fix typo in node database table documentation [CORDA-3476]
  • Fix node database page [CORDA-3477]
  • Add timestamp column to NODE_TRANSACTIONS table [CORDA-3479]
  • Support adding new mandatory field and removal of optional [CORDA-3489]
  • Fix link to network builder [CORDA-3495]
  • Provide option for user to specify custom serializers without classpath scanning [CORDA-3501]
  • The CordaRPCClientConfiguration is not respected when GracefulReconnect is used [CORDA-3507]
  • Fix for Could not start flow as connection failed error on starting flow via ShellCli if user is not authorized to use this flow [CORDA-3513]
  • Support whitelists and custom serializers inside the DJVM [CORDA-3523]
  • Load DJVM serialization types more precisely to avoid runtime warnings [CORDA-3536]
  • Use the config values for reconnecting retry interval and max reconnect attempts [CORDA-3542]
  • SSH memory leak and security [CORDA-3520]
  • Remove support for outdated ciphers and algorithms from SSH [CORDA-3550]
  • Deserialization using the DJVM creates too many SerializerFactory objects [CORDA-3552]
  • Allow initial registration errors to propagate up so the node exits with a failure code [CORDA-3558]
  • Remove reference to man run [CORDA-3559]
  • Always add TestCorDapps to the classpath when building _driverSerializationEnv [CORDA-3566]
  • Use the connectionMaxRetryInterval configuration when reconnection the RPC client [CORDA-3576]
  • Update docs for X500 name and SSH hostkey [CORDA-3585]
  • hashLookup command help misspelling [CORDA-3587]
  • Exit the InteractiveShell on shutdown command [CORDA-3593]

Corda Open Source 4.3 release notes

Corda 4.1 was released with a great suite of new features to build on top of the success of Corda 4. Now, Corda 4.3 extends upon that with some powerful new capabilities. Corda 4.3 contains over 400 fixes and documentation updates to bring additional stability and quality of life improvements to those developing on the Corda platform.

We recommend you upgrade from Corda 4.1 to Corda 4.3 as soon as possible.

Changes for developers in Corda 4.3

Introduction of Accounts

With Corda 4.3 we are introducing the concept of “Accounts”. Vaults can be logically partitioned into subsets, each subset representing an account.

This is advantageous for several reasons:

  • Node operators can reduce costs by hosting multiple entities, as accounts, on one node
  • Node operators can partition the vault on a per entity basis
  • In many cases, node owners or operators will be maintaining balances of cash, assets, or agreements on behalf of others
  • Accounts allow network access to those who cannot (or do not want to) be first-class citizens on the network

This new functionality allows hosts to take a custodial role over their nodes, supporting a broader range of use-cases.

Please find more information on Accounts functionality in the documentation.

Confidential Identities

Confidential Identities have been revisited, and nodes no longer use or store X.500 certificates. Keys used for signing confidential transactions have been decoupled from the node’s identity, and a nonce challenge is used to confirm a Confidential Identity belongs to the legal identity claiming it.

This removes the requirement to serialize and store the certificate chain for each new key that is registered.

In addition, confidential identities can now be shared without needing a transaction.

Improved RPC client connectivity

The CordaRPCClient library has been improved in Corda 4.3 to address issues where the library does not automatically reconnect to the node if the RPC connection is broken.

The improved library provides the following enhancements:

  • Reconnects to the node via RPC if the RPC connection to the node is broken
  • Reconnects any observables that have been created
  • Retries all operations on failure, except for flow start operations that die before receiving a valid FlowHandle, in which case a CouldNotStartFlowException is thrown

We’re confident in the improvements made to RPC client connectivity but would remind you that applications should be developed with contingencies in the event of an RPC connection failure. See Interacting with a node for details.

Additional flexibility in recording transactions

In Corda 4.3, nodes can choose to record a transaction with three different levels of visibility:

  • Store only the relevant states in the transaction (the default)
  • Store every state in the transaction (used when observing a transaction, for example)
  • Store none of the states in the transaction (used during transaction resolution, for example)

Previously, there was a limitation in that if a node initially records a transaction with a specific level of visibility, they cannot later record it with a different level of visibility.

In Corda 4.3, an enhancement has been made to observer node functionality to allow observers to re-record transactions that have already been recorded at a lower visibility. See Observer nodes for details of how to work with observer nodes

Changes for operators in Corda 4.3

Additional flexibility for RPC permissioning

RPC permissions can now contain wildcards; for example: com.example.* matches both and

Security Upgrades

There have been several security upgrades, including changes to the Corda webserver, dependency changes, changes to X509 extended key usage, and whitelisting attachments.

  • Extended key usage: Corda certificates previously defined the X509 ‘Extended Key Usage’ as ‘anyExtendedKeyUsage’ which was too broad. Only the necessary key uses are included now. For example, for Corda TLS certificates, the only required extended key usages are ‘Client Authentication’ and ‘Server Authentication’.
  • Corda webserver moved to testing module: The Corda webserver is deprecated and not suitable for production use. In Corda 4.3 it has been renamed test-server and moved to the testing module.
  • Enhancements to attachment whitelisting: Transactions referencing contracts that are not installed on a node can still be accepted if the contract is signed by a trusted party.
  • Updated vulnerable dependency: Jolokia 1.2 to 1.6.0 are vulnerable to system-wide cross-site-request-forgery attacks. Updated to Jolokia 1.6.1

Platform version change

Given the addition of a new API to support the Accounts feature, the platform version of Corda 4.3 has been bumped up from 4 to 5. This is to prevent CorDapps that use it being deployed onto nodes unable to host them. Note that the minimum platform version has not been changed - this means that older Corda nodes can still interoperate with Corda 4.3 nodes. Since the APIs added do not affect the wire protocol or have other zone-level implications, applications can take advantage of these new platform version 5 features even if the Corda 4.3 node is running on a network whose minimum platform version is 4.

For more information on platform version, please see Versioning. For more details on upgrading a CorDapp to use platform version 5, please see Upgrading CorDapps to newer Platform Versions.


The Corda Finance library is now deprecated and has been superseded by the Corda Tokens SDK. While the finance library is not yet being removed, we are no longer improving or updating it. We strongly encourage users to transition from the Corda Finance library to the Corda Tokens SDK. Find more information and begin using the tokens SDK in the GitHub repository here

Any confidential identities registered using the old API will not be reflected in the new tables after migration to Corda 4.3. However, the standard APIs work with both old and new confidential identities tables. For this reason, we do not recommend the use of both old and new confidential identities APIs in the same deployment. The old confidential identities API will be deprecated in a future release.

Issues Fixed

  • Register custom serializers for jackson as well as amqp [CORDA-3152]
  • Cleanup non-finalised, errored flows [CORDA-3122]
  • Introduce max number of retries per invocation for reconnecting rpc [CORDA-3304]
  • Fix for CORDA-3315 [CORDA-3315]
  • Add a check for shutdown to avoid some of the errors ()” , (#5578) [Revert “CORDA-3281]
  • RPC Invocation fails when calling classes with defaulted constructors O/S [CORDA-3043]
  • Avoid flushing when inside a cascade [CORDA-3303]
  • fix observables not being tagged with notUsed() [CORDA-3236]
  • deployNodes doesn’t use right version of Java [ISSUE-246]
  • Remove quasarRPC client [CORDA-2979]
  • Fix infinite loop [CORDA-3306]
  • Add a check for shutdown to avoid some of the errors [CORDA-3281]
  • Make Tx verification exceptions serializable [CORDA-2965]
  • Node configuration doc change [CORDA-2756]
  • Improve error handling for registering peer node [CORDA-3263]
  • JDK11, built and published artifacts to include classifier [CORDA-3224]
  • Missing logs on shutdown [CORDA-3246]
  • Improve CorDapp loading logic for duplicates [CORDA-3243]
  • Publish checkpoint agent jar and allow for inclusion of version id in jar upon run-time execution
  • O/S version of fix for slow running in 4.3 [CORDA-3235]
  • Enhance backwards compatibility logic to include Inter… [CORDA-3274]
  • Prevent node startup failure upon cross-platform execution [CORDA-2050]
  • Remove Gradle’s evaluation dependency on node:capsule [CORDA-2050]
  • New detekt rules based on feedback [TM-44]
  • Remove Gradle’s evaluation dependency on node:capsule [CORDA-2050]
  • Fix dba migration for PostgreSQL following changes in CORDA-3009 [CORDA-3226]
  • Vault Query API enhancement, strict participants matching [CORDA-3184]
  • Move executor thread management into CordaRPCConnection [CORDA-3091]
  • Replace deprecated use of Class.newInstance() for sake of DJVM [CORDA-3273]
  • Support of multiple interfaces for RPC calls [CORDA-3232]
  • Rename the webserver [CORDA-3024]
  • optional node.conf property not recognized when overridden [CORDA-3240]
  • Add missing quasar classifier to web server capsule manifest [CORDA-3266]
  • Revert back to quasar 0.7.10 (Java 8) [CORDA-2050]
  • Ensure that ArraySerializer.elementType is resolved for GenericArray [CORDA-2050]
  • backporting detekt config changes to OS 4.1 and rebaselining [TM-32]
  • Fix vault query for participants specified in common criteria [CORDA-3209]
  • Do not add java.lang.Class fields and properties to local type cache [CORDA-2050]
  • Fix Classgraph scanning lock type [CORDA-3238]
  • Added exception handling for missing files that displays appropriate messages rather than defaulting to file names [CORDA-2368]
  • new baseline for 4.3 since new debt has been added with the last few commits [TM-29]
  • Upgrade Corda to Java 11 (compatibility mode) [CORDA-2050]
  • Add GracefulReconnect callbacks which allow logic to be performed when RPC disconnects unexpectedly [CORDA-3141]
  • Checkpoints which cannot be deserialised no longer prevent the nodestarting up [CORDA-1836]
  • Make set of serializer types considered suitable for object reference to be configurable [CORDA-3218]
  • Notary logging improvements [CORDA-3060]
  • Improve Notary loggingan operator/admins point of view [CORDA-3060]
  • Make set of serializer types considered suitable for object reference to be configurable [CORDA-3218]
  • Fix postgres oid/ bytea column issue [CORDA-3200]
  • Load drivers directory automatically [CORDA-3079]
  • Fixed bug where observable leaks on ctrl+c interrupt while waiting in stateMachinesFeed [CORDA-3151]
  • Fail build on compiler warnings [TM-23]
  • (Version 2) [CORDA-3133]
  • Prevent node running SwapIdentitiesFlowinitiating session with itself [CORDA-2837]
  • Split migrations as per… [CORDA-3200]
  • Remove RPC exception obfuscation [CORDA-2740]
  • Whitelisting attachments by public key, phase two tooling [CORDA-3018]
  • Use PersistentIdentityMigrationBuilder instead of schema a… [CORDA-3200]
  • Add -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -XX:+CrashOnOutOfMemoryError to default JVM args for node [CORDA-3187]
  • Ignore synthetic and static fields when searching for state pointers [CORDA-3188]
  • Additional Back Chain Resolution performance enhancements [CORDA-3177]
  • Close security manager after broker is shut down [CORDA-2890]
  • Added additional property on VaultQueryCriteria for querying by account [CORDA-3182]
  • Added ability to lookup the associated UUID for a public key to KeyManagementService [CORDA-3180]
  • Remove dependency on 3rd party javax.xml.bind library for simple hex parsing/printing [CORDA-3175]
  • FilterMyKeys now uses the key store as opposed to the cert store [CORDA-3178]
  • Refine documentation around rpc reconnection [CORDA-3106]
  • Rebase identity service changes onto 4.3 [CORDA-2925]
  • Close previous connection after reconnection [CORDA-3098]
  • Add wildcard RPC permissions [CORDA-3022]
  • Migrate identity service to use to string short [CORDA-3009]
  • Modify Corda’s custom serialiser support for the DJVM [CORDA-3157]
  • JacksonSupport, for CordaSerializable classes, improved to only uses those properties that are part of Corda serialisation [CORDA-2919]
  • Update cache to check node identity keys in identity table [CORDA-3149]
  • Removed InMemoryTransactionsResolver as it’s not needed and other resolution cleanup [CORDA-3138]
  • Update app upgrade notes to document source incompatibility [CORDA-3082]
  • improvements to checkpoint dumper [CORDA-3094]
  • Add a cache for looking up external UUIDspublic keys [CORDA-3130]
  • Cater for port already bound scenario during port allocation [CORDA-3139]
  • Update owasp scanner [CORDA-3120]
  • Whitelisting attachments by public key, relax signer restrictions [CORDA-3018]
  • Add failover listeners to terminate node process [CORDA-2617]
  • Parallel node info download [CORDA-3055]
  • Checkpoint agent tool [CORDA-3071]
  • More information in log warning for CorDapps missing advised JAR manifest file entries [CORDA-3012]
  • Restore CompositeKey support to core-deterministic [CORDA-2871]
  • Restrict extended key usage of certificate types [CORDA-2216]
  • Hash to Signature Constraint automatic propagation [CORDA-2920]
  • Prevent connection threads leaking on reconnect [CORDA-2923]
  • Exception is logged if flow session message can’t be deserialised [CORDA-3092]
  • Do not throw exception for missing fiber and log instead
  • Make the RPC client reconnect with gracefulReconnect param [CORDA-2923]
  • Pass base directory when resolving relative paths [CORDA-3068]
  • Add Node Diagnostics Info RPC Call, Update changelog [CORDA-3028]
  • Add Node Diagnostics Info RPC Call, Backport a diff from [CORDA-3028]
  • fix network builder [CORDA-2998]
  • Add Node Diagnostics Info RPC Call [CORDA-3028]
  • Allow transactions to be re-recorded using StatesToRecord.ALL_VISIBLE [CORDA-2086]
  • shorten poll intervals for node info file propagation [CORDA-2991]
  • Allow certificate directory to be a symlink [CORDA-2914]
  • fix network builder [CORDA-2998]
  • min after normal operation [CORDA-3034. Reconnecting Rpc will now not wait only for 60]
  • Refactor NodeConfiguration out of NodeRegistrationHelper [CORDA-2720]
  • NotaryLoader, improve exception handling [CORDA-2996]
  • Introduce SignOnlyCryptoService and use it whenever possible [CORDA-3021]
  • Introducing Destination interface for initiating flows with [CORDA-3033]
  • Fine-tune compile vs runtime scopes of published deterministic jars [CORDA-2871]
  • Upgrade notes for C4 need to include required minimum previous Corda version () , (#5124) [CORDA-2511]
  • Align timeouts for CRL retrieval and TLS handshake [CORDA-2935]
  • disable hibernate validator integration with hibernate () , (#5144) [CORDA-2934]
  • Fix release tooling when product name != jira project [CORDA-3017]
  • Constrain max heap size for Spring boot processes [CORDA-3031]
  • Updated the majority of the dependencies that were out of date [CORDA-2333]
  • Allow AbstractParty to initiate flow [CORDA-3000]
  • Reverting jersey and mockito as it currently causes issues with ENT [CORDA-2333]
  • Fixing x500Prinicipal matching [CORDA-2974]
  • Fix for liquibase changelog warnings [CORDA-2774]
  • Add documentation on the options for deploying nodes [CORDA-1912]
  • Disable slow consumers for RPC since it doesn’t work [CORDA-2981]
  • Revert usage of Gradle JUnit 5 Platform Runner [CORDA-2970]
  • Fix for CORDA-2972 [CORDA-2972]
  • Catch IllegalArgumentException to avoid shutdown of NodeExplorer [CORDA-2945]
  • Remove version uniqueness check [CORDA-2975]
  • Support for custom Jackson serializers ()” , (#5167) [Revert “CORDA-2773]
  • disable hibernate validator integration with hibernate [CORDA-2934]
  • improve error messages for non composable types [CORDA-2870]
  • Align timeouts for CRL retrieval and TLS handshake [CORDA-2935]
  • Remove AMQP system property [CORDA-2473]
  • Simple prose checking [DEVREL-1287]
  • Minor Typos & Commands info in “Other transaction components” intro [DEVREL-1287]
  • Minor Typographic Changes [DEVREL-1287]
  • Whitelist attachments signed by keys that already sign existing trusted attachments [CORDA-2517]
  • Prevent node startup if legal identity key is lost but node key isn’t [CORDA-2866]
  • change default dataSource.url to match the docker container structure [CORDA-2888]
  • change documentation [CORDA-2641]
  • Allow bring-your-own-config to docker image [CORDA-2888]
  • Remove the CanonicalizerPluginbuildSrc [CORDA-2902]
  • Improve Signature Constraints documentation [CORDA-2477]
  • Automatic propagation of whitelisted to Signature Constraints [CORDA-2280]
  • Docker build tasks will pull the corda jarartifactory [CORDA-2884]
  • Support for custom Jackson serializers [CORDA-2773]
  • Added ability to specify signature scheme when signing [CORDA-2882]
  • Drop the acknowledge window for RPC responses to 16KB1MB because the memory footprint is multipled by the number of RPC clients [CORDA-2845]
  • Handle exceptions when file does not exist [CORDA-2632]
  • Allow users to whitelist attachments by public key config [CORDA-2575]
  • Remove CORDA_VERSION_THAT_INTRODUCED_FLATTENED_COMMANDS as commands are not flattened anymore [CORDA-2817]
  • Fix issue with Quasar errors redirecting to useless page [ CORDA-2821 <[]( CORDA-2821>_]
  • Support custom serialisers when attaching missing attachments to txs [CORDA-2847]
  • Use compileOnly instead of cordaCompile in irs-demo to depend on node module
  • Improvements to docker image , compatible with v3.3 [CORDA-4954]
  • Add peer information to stacktrace of received FlowException [CORDA-2572]
  • Fix to allow softlinks of logs directory [CORDA-2862]
  • Add dynamic port allocation [CORDA-2743]
  • relax property type checking [CORDA-2860]
  • give the message executor its own artemis session and producer [CORDA-2861]
  • Do not remove exception information in dev mode [CORDA-2645]
  • Update getting setup guide java details [CORDA-2602]
  • Documentation around explicit upgrades [CORDA-2456]
  • Follow up changes to error reporting around failed flows [CORDA-2522]
  • change parameter syntax to conform to Corda CLI guidelines [CORDA-2833]
  • relax fingerprinter strictness [CORDA-2848]
  • Check if resources are in classpath [CORDA-2651]
  • Improve error reporting around failed flows [CORDA-2522]
  • Fix the way serialization whitelist is calculated for CorDappImpl [CORDA-2851]
  • Changed crash version to our latest [CORDA-2519]
  • Clarify error message when base directory doesn’t exist [CORDA-2834]
  • change message when rpc/p2p login fails [CORDA-2621]
  • nodeinfo signing tool [CORDA-2833]
  • Restructure evolution serialization errors to print reason first [CORDA-2633]
  • Add Java samples to upgrading to Corda 4 documentation [CORDA-2710]
  • Update contract testing documentation [CORDA-2528]
  • Do not start the P2P consumer until we have at least one registered handler (the state machine). This prevents message being delivered too early
  • Fix Progress Tracker bug [CORDA-2825]

Corda Open Source 4.1 release notes

It’s been a little under 3 1/2 months since the release of Corda 4.0 and all of the brand new features that added to the powerful suite of tools Corda offers. Now, following the release of Corda Enterprise Edition 4.0, we are proud to release Corda 4.1, bringing over 150 fixes and documentation updates to bring additional stability and quality of life improvements to those developing on the Corda platform.

Information on Corda Enterprise Edition 4.0 can be found here and here. (It’s worth noting that normally this document would have started with a comment about whether or not you’d been recently domiciled under some solidified mineral material regarding the release of Corda Enterprise Edition 4.0. Alas, we made that joke when we shipped the first release of Corda after Enterprise 3.0 shipped, so the thunder has been stolen and repeating ourselves would be terribly gauche.)

Corda 4.1 brings the lessons and bug fixes discovered during the process of building and shipping Enterprise 4.0 back to the open source community. As mentioned above there are over 150 fixes and tweaks here. With this release the core feature sets of both entities are far closer aligned than past major releases of the Corda that should make testing your CorDapps in mixed type environments much easier.

As such, we recommend you upgrade from Corda 4.0 to Corda 4.1 as soon possible.

Issues Fixed

  • Docker images do not support passing a prepared config with initial registration [CORDA-2888]
  • Different hashes for container Corda and normal Corda jars [CORDA-2884]
  • Auto attachment of dependencies fails to find class [CORDA-2863]
  • Artemis session can’t be used in more than one thread [CORDA-2861]
  • Property type checking is overly strict [CORDA-2860]
  • Serialisation bug (or not) when trying to run SWIFT Corda Settler tests [CORDA-2848]
  • Custom serialisers not found when running mock network tests [CORDA-2847]
  • Base directory error message where directory does not exist is slightly misleading [CORDA-2834]
  • Progress tracker not reloadable in checkpoints written in Java [CORDA-2825]
  • Missing quasar error points to non-existent page [CORDA-2821]
  • TransactionBuilder can build unverifiable transactions in V5 if more than one CorDapp loaded [CORDA-2817]
  • The node hangs when there is a dis-connection of Oracle database [CORDA-2813]
  • Docs: fix the latex warnings in the build [CORDA-2809]
  • Docs: build the docs page needs updating [CORDA-2808]
  • Don’t retry database transaction in abstract node start [CORDA-2807]
  • Upgrade Corda Core to use Java Persistence API 2.2 [CORDA-2804]
  • Improve test reliability by eliminating fixed-duration Thread.sleeps [CORDA-2802]
  • Not handled exception when certificates directory is missing [CORDA-2786]
  • Unable to run FinalityFlow if the initiating app has targetPlatformVersion=4 and the recipient is using the old version [CORDA-2784]
  • Performing a registration with an incorrect Config gives error without appropriate info [CORDA-2783]
  • Regression: java.lang.Comparable is not on the default whitelist but never has been [CORDA-2782]
  • Docs: replace version string with things that get substituted [CORDA-2781]
  • Inconsistent docs between internal and external website [CORDA-2779]
  • Change the doc substitution so that it works in code blocks as well as in other places [CORDA-2777]
  • net.corda.core.internal.LazyStickyPool#toIndex can create a negative index [CORDA-2772]
  • NetworkMapUpdater#fileWatcherSubscription is never assigned and hence the subscription is never cleaned up [CORDA-2770]
  • Infinite recursive call in NetworkParameters.copy [CORDA-2769]
  • Unexpected exception de-serializing throwable for OverlappingAttachmentsException [CORDA-2765]
  • Always log config to log file [CORDA-2763]
  • ReceiveTransactionFlow states to record flag gets quietly ignored if checkSufficientSignatures = false [CORDA-2762]
  • Fix Driver’s PortAllocation class, and then use it for Node’s integration tests. [CORDA-2759]
  • State machine logs an error prior to deciding to escalate to an error [CORDA-2757]
  • Migrate DJVM into a separate module [CORDA-2750]
  • Error in HikariPool in the performance cluster [CORDA-2748]
  • Package DJVM CLI for standalone distribution [CORDA-2747]
  • Unable to insert state into vault if notary not on network map [CORDA-2745]
  • Create sample code and integration tests to showcase rpc operations that support reconnection [CORDA-2743]
  • RPC v4 client unable to subscribe to progress tracker events from Corda 3.3 node [CORDA-2742]
  • Doc Fix: Rpc client connection management section not fully working in Corda 4 [CORDA-2741]
  • AnsiProgressRenderer may start reporting incorrect progress if tree contains identical steps [CORDA-2738]
  • The FlowProgressHandle does not always return expected results [CORDA-2737]
  • Doc fix: integration testing tutorial could do with some gradle instructions [CORDA-2729]
  • Release upgrade to Corda 4 notes: include upgrading quasar.jar explicitly in the Corda Kotlin template [CORDA-2728]
  • DJVM CLI log file is always empty [CORDA-2725]
  • DJVM documentation incorrect around djvm check [CORDA-2721]
  • Doc fix: reflect the CorDapp template doc changes re quasar/test running the official docs [CORDA-2715]
  • Upgrade to Corda 4 test docs only have Kotlin examples [CORDA-2710]
  • Log message “Cannot find flow corresponding to session” should not be a warning [CORDA-2706]
  • Flow failing due to “Flow sessions were not provided” for its own identity [CORDA-2705]
  • RPC user security using Shiro docs have errant commas in example config [CORDA-2703]
  • The crlCheckSoftFail option is not respected, allowing transactions even if strict checking is enabled [CORDA-2701]
  • Vault paging fails if setting max page size to Int.MAX_VALUE [CORDA-2698]
  • Upgrade to Corda Gradle Plugins 4.0.41 [CORDA-2697]
  • Corda complaining of duplicate classes upon start-up when it doesn’t need to [CORDA-2696]
  • Launching node explorer for node creates error and explorer closes [CORDA-2694]
  • Transactions created in V3 cannot be verified in V4 if any of the state types were included in “depended upon” CorDapps which were not attached to the transaction [CORDA-2692]
  • Reduce CorDapp scanning logging [CORDA-2690]
  • Clean up verbose warning: ProgressTracker has not been started [CORDA-2689]
  • Add a no-carpenter context [CORDA-2688]
  • Improve CorDapp upgrade guidelines for migrating existing states on ledger (pre-V4) [CORDA-2684]
  • SessionRejectException.UnknownClass trapped by flow hospital but no way to call dropSessionInit() [CORDA-2683]
  • Repeated CordFormations can fail with ClassLoader exception. [CORDA-2676]
  • Backwards compatibility break in serialisation engine when deserialising nullable fields [CORDA-2674]
  • Simplify sample CorDapp projects. [CORDA-2672]
  • Remove ExplorerSimulator from Node Explorer [CORDA-2671]
  • Reintroduce pendingFlowsCount to the public API [CORDA-2669]
  • Trader demo integration tests fails with jar not found exception [CORDA-2668]
  • Fix Source ClassLoader for DJVM [CORDA-2667]
  • Issue with simple transfer of ownable asset [CORDA-2665]
  • Fix references to Docker images in docs [CORDA-2664]
  • Add something to docsite the need for a common contracts Jar between OS/ENT and how it should be compiled against OS [CORDA-2656]
  • Create document outlining CorDapp Upgrade guarantees [CORDA-2655]
  • Fix DJVM CLI tool [CORDA-2654]
  • Corda Service needs Thread Context ClassLoader [CORDA-2653]
  • Useless migration error when finance workflow jar is not installed [CORDA-2651]
  • Database connection pools leaking memory on every checkpoint [CORDA-2646]
  • Exception swallowed when querying vault via RPC with bad page spec [CORDA-2645]
  • Applying CordFormation and CorDapp Gradle plugins together includes Jolokia into the CorDapp. [CORDA-2642]
  • Provide a better error message on an incompatible implicit contract upgrade [CORDA-2633]
  • uploadAttachment via shell can fail with unhelpful message if the result of the command is unsuccessful [CORDA-2632]
  • Provide a better error msg when the notary type is misconfigured on the net params [CORDA-2629]
  • Maybe tone down the level of panic when somebody types their SSH password in incorrectly… [CORDA-2621]
  • Cannot complete transaction that has unknown states in the transaction history [CORDA-2615]
  • Switch off the codepaths that disable the FinalityHandler [CORDA-2613]
  • is our API documentation (what is stable and what isn’t) correct? [CORDA-2610]
  • Getting set up guide needs to be updated to reflect Java 8 fun and games [CORDA-2602]
  • Not handle exception when Explorer tries to connect to inaccessible server [CORDA-2586]
  • Errors received from peers can’t be distinguished from local errors [CORDA-2572]
  • Add flow kill command, deprecate run killFlow [CORDA-2569]
  • Hash to signature constraints migration: add a config option that makes hash constraints breakable. [CORDA-2568]
  • Deadlock between database and AppendOnlyPersistentMap [CORDA-2566]
  • Docfix: Document custom CorDapp configuration [CORDA-2560]
  • Bootstrapper - option to include contracts to whitelist from signed jars [CORDA-2554]
  • Explicit contract upgrade sample fails upon initiation (ClassNotFoundException) [CORDA-2550]
  • IRS demo app missing demodate endpoint [CORDA-2535]
  • Doc fix: Contract testing tutorial errors [CORDA-2528]
  • Unclear error message when receiving state from node on higher version of signed CorDapp [CORDA-2522]
  • Terminating ssh connection to node results in stack trace being thrown to the console [CORDA-2519]
  • Error propagating hash to signature constraints [CORDA-2515]
  • Unable to import trusted attachment [CORDA-2512]
  • Invalid node command line options not always gracefully handled [CORDA-2506]
  • node.conf with rogue line results non-comprehensive error [CORDA-2505]
  • Fix v4’s inability to migrate V3 vault data [CORDA-2487]
  • Vault Query fails to process states upon CorDapp Contract upgrade [CORDA-2486]
  • Signature Constraints end-user documentation is limited [CORDA-2477]
  • Docs update: document transition from the whitelist constraint to the sig constraint [CORDA-2465]
  • The ContractUpgradeWireTransaction does not support the Signature Constraint [CORDA-2456]
  • Intermittent relation “hibernate_sequence” does not exist error when using Postgres [CORDA-2393]
  • Implement package namespace ownership [CORDA-1947]
  • Show explicit error message when new version of OS CorDapp contains schema changes [CORDA-1596]
  • Dockerfile improvements and image size reduction [CORDA-2929]
  • Update QPID Proton-J library to latest [CORDA-2856]
  • Not handled excpetion when certificates directory is missing [CORDA-2786]
  • The DJVM cannot sandbox instances of Contract.verify(LedgerTransaction) when testing CorDapps. [CORDA-2775]
  • State machine logs an error prior to deciding to escalate to an error [CORDA-2757]
  • Should Jolokia be included in the built jar files? [CORDA-2699]
  • Transactions created in V3 cannot be verified in V4 if any of the state types were included in “depended upon” CorDapps which were not attached to the transaction [CORDA-2692]
  • Prevent a node re-registering with the doorman if it did already and the node “state” has not been erased [CORDA-2647]
  • The cert hierarchy diagram for C4 is the same as C3.0 but I thought we changed it between C3.1 and 3.2? [CORDA-2604]
  • Windows build fails with FileSystemException in TwoPartyTradeFlowTests [CORDA-2363]
  • Cash.generateSpend cannot be used twice to generate two cash moves in the same tx [CORDA-2162]
  • FlowException thrown by session.receive is not propagated back to a counterparty
  • invalid command line args for corda result in 0 exit code
  • Windows build fails on TwoPartyTradeFlowTests
  • C4 performance below C3, bring it back into parity
  • Deserialisation of ContractVerificationException blows up trying to put null into non-null field
  • Reference state test (R3T-1918) failing probably due to unconsumed linear state that was referenced.
  • Signature constraint: Jarsigner verification allows removal of files from the archive.
  • Node explorer bug revealed from within Demobench: serialisation failed error is shown
  • Security: Fix vulnerability where an attacker can use CustomSerializers to alter the meaning of serialized data
  • Node/RPC is broken after CorDapp upgrade
  • RPC client disconnects shouldn’t be a warning
  • Hibernate logs warning and errors for some conditions we handle

Corda Open Source 4 release notes

Welcome to the Corda 4 release notes. Please read these carefully to understand what’s new in this release and how the changes can help you. Just as prior releases have brought with them commitments to wire and API stability, Corda 4 comes with those same guarantees. States and apps valid in Corda 3 are usable in Corda 4.

For app developers, we strongly recommend reading “Upgrading CorDapps to newer Platform Versions”. This covers the upgrade procedure, along with how you can adjust your app to opt-in to new features making your app more secure and easier to upgrade in future.

For node operators, we recommend reading “Upgrading your node to Corda 4”. The upgrade procedure is simple but it can’t hurt to read the instructions anyway.

Additionally, be aware that the data model improvements are changes to the Corda consensus rules. To use apps that benefit from them, all nodes in a compatibility zone must be upgraded and the zone must be enforcing that upgrade. This may take time in large zones. Please take this into account for your own schedule planning.

Changes for developers in Corda 4

Reference states

With Corda 4 we are introducing the concept of “reference input states”. These allow smart contracts to reference data from the ledger in a transaction without simultaneously updating it. They’re useful not only for any kind of reference data such as rates, healthcare codes, geographical information etc, but for anywhere you might have used a SELECT JOIN in a SQL based app.

A reference input state is a ContractState which can be referred to in a transaction by the contracts of input and output states but, significantly, whose contract is not executed as part of the transaction verification process and is not consumed when the transaction is committed to the ledger. Rather, it is checked for “current-ness”. In other words, the contract logic isn’t run for the referencing transaction only. Since they’re normal states, if they do occur in the input or output positions, they can evolve on the ledger, modeling reference data in the real world.

Signature constraints

CorDapps built by the corda-gradle-plugins are now signed and sealed JAR files by default. This signing can be configured or disabled with the default certificate being the Corda development certificate.

When an app is signed, that automatically activates the use of signature constraints, which are an important part of the Corda security and upgrade plan. They allow states to express what contract logic governs them socially, as in “any contract JAR signed by a threshold of these N keys is suitable”, rather than just by hash or via zone whitelist rules, as in previous releases.

We strongly recommend all apps be signed and use signature constraints going forward.

Learn more about this new feature by reading the Upgrading CorDapps to newer Platform Versions.

State pointers

State Pointers formalize a recommended design pattern, in which states may refer to other states on the ledger by StateRef (a pair of transaction hash and output index that is sufficient to locate any information on the global ledger). State pointers work together with the reference states feature to make it easy for data to point to the latest version of any other piece of data, with the right version being automatically incorporated into transactions for you.

New network builder tool

A new graphical tool for building test Corda networks has been added. It can build Docker images for local deployment and can also remotely control Microsoft Azure, to create a test network in the cloud.

Learn more on the Corda Network Builder page.

network builder v4

JPA access in flows and services

Corda 3 provides the jdbcConnection API on FlowLogic to give access to an active connection to your underlying database. It is fully intended that apps can store their own data in their own tables in the node database, so app-specific tables can be updated atomically with the ledger data itself. But JDBC is not always convenient, so in Corda 4 we are additionally exposing the Java Persistence Architecture, for object-relational mapping. The new ServiceHub.withEntityManager API lets you load and persist entity beans inside your flows and services.

Please do write apps that read and write directly to tables running alongside the node’s own tables. Using SQL is a convenient and robust design pattern for accessing data on or off the ledger.

Security upgrades

Sealing. Sealed JARs are a security upgrade that ensures JARs cannot define classes in each other’s packages, thus ensuring Java’s package-private visibility feature works. The Gradle plugins now seal your JARs by default.

BelongsToContract annotation. CorDapps are currently expected to verify that the right contract is named in each state object. This manual step is easy to miss, which would make the app less secure in a network where you trade with potentially malicious counterparties. The platform now handles this for you by allowing you to annotate states with which contract governs them. If states are inner classes of a contract class, this association is automatic. See API: Contract Constraints for more information.

Two-sided FinalityFlow and SwapIdentitiesFlow. The previous FinalityFlow API was insecure because nodes would accept any finalised transaction, outside of the context of a containing flow. This would allow transactions to be sent to a node bypassing things like business network membership checks. The same applies for the SwapIdentitiesFlow in the confidential-identities module. A new API has been introduced to allow secure use of this flow.

Package namespace ownership. Corda 4 allows app developers to register their keys and Java package namespaces with the zone operator. Any JAR that defines classes in these namespaces will have to be signed by those keys. This is an opt-in feature designed to eliminate potential confusion that could arise if a malicious developer created classes in other people’s package namespaces (e.g. an attacker creating a state class called com.megacorp.exampleapp.ExampleState). Whilst Corda’s attachments feature would stop the core ledger getting confused by this, tools and formats that connect to the node may not be designed to consider attachment hashes or signing keys, and rely more heavily on type names instead. Package namespace ownership allows tool developers to assume that if a class name appears to be owned by an organisation, then the semantics of that class actually were defined by that organisation, thus eliminating edge cases that might otherwise cause confusion.

Network parameters in transactions

Transactions created under a Corda 4+ node will have the currently valid signed NetworkParameters file attached to each transaction. This will allow future introspection of states to ascertain what was the accepted global state of the network at the time they were notarised. Additionally, new signatures must be working with the current globally accepted parameters. The notary signing a transaction will check that it does indeed reference the current in-force network parameters, meaning that old (and superseded) network parameters can not be used to create new transactions.

RPC upgrades

AMQP/1.0 is now default serialization framework across all of Corda (checkpointing aside), swapping the RPC framework from using the older Kryo implementation. This means Corda open source and Enterprise editions are now RPC wire compatible and either client library can be used. We previously started using AMQP/1.0 for the peer to peer protocol in Corda 3.

Class synthesis. The RPC framework supports the “class carpenter” feature. Clients can now freely download and deserialise objects, such as contract states, for which the defining class files are absent from their classpath. Definitions for these classes will be synthesised on the fly from the binary schemas embedded in the messages. The resulting dynamically created objects can then be fed into any framework that uses reflection, such as XML formatters, JSON libraries, GUI construction toolkits, scripting engines and so on. This approach is how the Blob Inspector tool works - it simply deserialises a message and then feeds the resulting synthetic class graph into a JSON or YAML serialisation framework.

Class synthesis will use interfaces that are implemented by the original objects if they are found on the classpath. This is designed to enable generic programming. For example, if your industry has standardised a thin Java API with interfaces that expose JavaBean style properties (get/is methods), then you can have that JAR on the classpath of your tool and cast the deserialised objects to those interfaces. In this way you can work with objects from apps you aren’t aware of.

SSL. The Corda RPC infrastructure can now be configured to utilise SSL for additional security. The operator of a node wishing to enable this must of course generate and distribute a certificate in order for client applications to successfully connect. This is documented here Using the client RPC API

Preview of the deterministic DJVM

It is important that all nodes that process a transaction always agree on whether it is valid or not. Because transaction types are defined using JVM byte code, this means that the execution of that byte code must be fully deterministic. Out of the box a standard JVM is not fully deterministic, thus we must make some modifications in order to satisfy our requirements.

This version of Corda introduces a standalone Deterministic JVM. It isn’t yet integrated with the rest of the platform. It will eventually become a part of the node and enforce deterministic and secure execution of smart contract code, which is mobile and may propagate around the network without human intervention.

Currently, it is released as an evaluation version. We want to give developers the ability to start trying it out and get used to developing deterministic code under the set of constraints that we envision will be placed on contract code in the future. There are some instructions on how to get started with the DJVM command-line tool, which allows you to run code in a deterministic sandbox and inspect the byte code transformations that the DJVM applies to your code. Read more in “Deterministic JVM”.

Configurable flow responders

In Corda 4 it is possible for flows in one app to subclass and take over flows from another. This allows you to create generic, shared flow logic that individual users can customise at pre-agreed points (protected methods). For example, a site-specific app could be developed that causes transaction details to be converted to a PDF and sent to a particular printer. This would be an inappropriate feature to put into shared business logic, but it makes perfect sense to put into a user-specific app they developed themselves.

If your flows could benefit from being extended in this way, read “Configuring Responder Flows” to learn more.

Target/minimum versions

Applications can now specify a target version in their JAR manifest. The target version declares which version of the platform the app was tested against. By incrementing the target version, app developers can opt in to desirable changes that might otherwise not be entirely backwards compatible. For example in a future release when the deterministic JVM is integrated and enabled, apps will need to opt in to determinism by setting the target version to a high enough value.

Target versioning has a proven track record in both iOS and Android of enabling platforms to preserve strong backwards compatibility, whilst also moving forward with new features and bug fixes. We recommend that maintained applications always try and target the latest version of the platform. Setting a target version does not imply your app requires a node of that version, merely that it’s been tested against that version and can handle any opt-in changes.

Applications may also specify a minimum platform version. If you try to install an app in a node that is too old to satisfy this requirement, the app won’t be loaded. App developers can set their min platform version requirement if they start using new features and APIs.

Dependency upgrades

We’ve raised the minimum JDK to 8u171, needed to get fixes for certain ZIP compression bugs.

We’ve upgraded to Kotlin 1.2.71 so your apps can now benefit from the new features in this language release.

We’ve upgraded to Gradle 5.4.1.

Changes for administrators in Corda 4

Official Docker images

Corda 4 adds an Official Corda Docker Image for starting the node. It’s based on Ubuntu and uses the Azul Zulu spin of Java 8. Other tools will have Docker images in future as well.

Auto-acceptance for network parameters updates

Changes to the parameters of a compatibility zone require all nodes to opt in before a flag day.

Some changes are trivial and very unlikely to trigger any disagreement. We have added auto-acceptance for a subset of network parameters, negating the need for a node operator to manually run an accept command on every parameter update. This behaviour can be turned off via the node configuration. See The network map.

Automatic error codes

Errors generated in Corda are now hashed to produce a unique error code that can be used to perform a lookup into a knowledge base. The lookup URL will be printed to the logs when an error occur. Here’s an example:

[ERROR] 2018-12-19T17:18:39,199Z [main] internal.NodeStartupLogging.invoke - Exception during node startup: The name 'O=Wawrzek Test C4, L=London, C=GB' for identity doesn't match what's in the key store: O=Wawrzek Test C4, L=Ely, C=GB [errorCode=wuxa6f, moreInformationAt=]

The hope is that common error conditions can quickly be resolved and opaque errors explained in a more user friendly format to facilitate faster debugging and trouble shooting.

At the moment, Stack Overflow is that knowledge base, with the error codes being converted to a URL that redirects either directly to the answer or to an appropriate search on Stack Overflow.

Standardisation of command line argument handling

In Corda 4 we have ported the node and all our tools to use a new command line handling framework. Advantages for you:

  • Improved, coloured help output.
  • Common options have been standardised to use the same name and behaviour everywhere.
  • All programs can now generate bash/zsh auto completion files.

You can learn more by reading our CLI user experience guidelines document.

Liquibase for database schema upgrades

We have open sourced the Liquibase schema upgrade feature from Corda Enterprise. The node now uses Liquibase to bootstrap and update itself automatically. This is a transparent change with pre Corda 4 nodes seamlessly upgrading to operate as if they’d been bootstrapped in this way. This also applies to the finance CorDapp module.

Ability to pre-validate configuration files

A new command has been added that lets you verify a config file is valid without starting up the rest of the node:

java -jar corda-4.0.jar validate-configuration

Flow control for notaries

Notary clusters can now exert backpressure on clients, to stop them from being overloaded. Nodes will be ordered to back off if a notary is getting too busy, and app flows will pause to give time for the load spike to pass. This change is transparent to both developers and administrators.

Retirement of non-elliptic Diffie-Hellman for TLS

The TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 family of ciphers is retired from the list of allowed ciphers for TLS as it is a legacy cipher family not supported by all native SSL/TLS implementations. We anticipate that this will have no impact on any deployed configurations.

Miscellaneous changes

To learn more about smaller changes, please read the Changelog.

Finally, we have added some new jokes. Thank you and good night!

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